LPI Linux Professional Institute

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Linux Professional Institute (LPI) is the global certification standard and career support organization for open source professionals. With more than 175,000 certification holders, it’s the world’s first and largest vendor-neutral Linux and open source certification body. LPI has certified professionals in over 180 countries, delivers exams in multiple languages, and has hundreds of training partners. 

ECCS Africa is an LPI Approved Training Partner covering the Indian Ocean and African Region delivering Classroom Based Instructor Led, On-site, Virtual and Online Courses in English and French. For more information please use the contact form for assistance.

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  • Overview
  • How to enroll?

The Linux Essentials certificate is a great way to show employers that you have the foundational skills required for your next job or promotion. It also serves as an ideal stepping stone to the more advanced LPIC Professional Certification track for Linux Systems Administrators.

Linux adoption continues to rise world-wide as individual users, government entities and industries ranging from automotive to space exploration embrace open source technologies. This expansion of open source in enterprise is redefining traditional Information and Communication Technology (ICT) job roles to require more Linux skills. Whether you’re starting your career in open source, or looking for advancement, independently verifying your skill set can help you stand out to hiring managers or your management team.
The Linux Essential educational certificate also serves as a great introduction to the more complete and advanced Linux Professional certification track.

Current Version: 1.6 (Exam code 010-160)
Objectives: 010-160
Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification
Requirements: Passing the Linux Essentials 010 exam
Validity Period: Lifetime
Languages: English or French

To receive the Linux Essentials Certificate the candidate must:

  • have an understanding of the Linux and open source industry and knowledge of the most popular open source Applications;
  • understand the major components of the Linux operating system, and have the technical proficiency to work on the Linux command line; and
  • have a basic understanding of security and administration related topics such as user/group management, working on the command line, and permissions.
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

LPIC-1 is the first certification in LPI’s multi-level Linux professional certification program. The LPIC-1 will validate the candidate's ability to perform maintenance tasks on the command line, install and configure a computer running Linux and configure basic networking.

The LPIC-1 is designed to reflect current research and validate a candidate's proficiency in real world system administration. The objectives are tied to real-world job skills, which we determine through job task analysis surveying during exam development.

Current Version: 5.0 (Exam codes 101-500 and 102-500)
Objectives: 101-500102-500
Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification
Requirements: Passing exams 101 and 102
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, or French 

To become LPIC-1 certified the candidate must be able to:

  • understand the architecture of a Linux system;
  • install and maintain a Linux workstation, including X11 and setup it up as a network client;
  • work at the Linux command line, including common GNU and Unix commands;
  • handle files and access permissions as well as system security; and
  • perform easy maintenance tasks: help users, add users to a larger system, backup and restore, shutdown and reboot.

Topic 101: System Architecture

101.1 Determine and configure hardware settings

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to determine and configure fundamental system hardware

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Enable and disable integrated peripherals.

  • Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices.

  • Determine hardware resources for devices.

  • Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsusb, lspci, etc.).

  • Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices.

  • Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev and dbus.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /sys/

  • /proc/

  • /dev/

  • modprobe

  • lsmod

  • lspci

  • lsusb

101.2 Boot the system

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Provide common commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time.

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the boot sequence from BIOS/UEFI to boot completion.

  • Understanding of SysVinit and systemd.

  • Awareness of Upstart.

  • Check boot events in the log files.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • dmesg

  • journalctl

  • BIOS

  • UEFI

  • bootloader

  • kernel

  • initramfs

  • init

  • SysVinit

  • systemd

101.3 Change runlevels / boot targets and shutdown or reboot system

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manage the SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target. It also includes awareness of Upstart as an alternative to SysVinit or systemd.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Set the default runlevel or boot target.

  • Change between runlevels / boot targets including single user mode.

  • Shutdown and reboot from the command line.

  • Alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets or other major system events.

  • Properly terminate processes.

  • Awareness of acpid.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/inittab

  • shutdown

  • init

  • /etc/init.d/

  • telinit

  • systemd

  • systemctl

  • /etc/systemd/

  • /usr/lib/systemd/

  • wall

Topic 102: Linux Installation and Package Management

102.1 Design hard disk layout

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks.
  • Tailor the design to the intended use of the system.
  • Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting.
  • Knowledge of basic features of LVM.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • / (root) filesystem
  • /var filesystem
  • /home filesystem
  • /boot filesystem
  • EFI System Partition (ESP)
  • swap space
  • mount points
  • partitions

102.2 Install a boot manager

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options.
  • Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB Legacy.
  • Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2.
  • Interact with the boot loader.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf
  • grub-install
  • grub-mkconfig
  • MBR

102.3 Manage shared libraries

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Identify shared libraries.
  • Identify the typical locations of system libraries.
  • Load shared libraries.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ldd
  • ldconfig
  • /etc/ld.so.conf
  • LD_LIBRARY_PATH

102.4 Use Debian package management

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages.
  • Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed.
  • Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed).
  • Awareness of apt.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/apt/sources.list
  • dpkg
  • dpkg-reconfigure
  • apt-get
  • apt-cache

102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management

Weight:  3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM, YUM and Zypper.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM, YUM and Zypper.
  • Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures.
  • Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from.
  • Awareness of dnf.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • rpm
  • rpm2cpio
  • /etc/yum.conf
  • /etc/yum.repos.d/
  • yum
  • zypper

 

102.6 Linux as a virtualization guest

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should understand the implications of virtualization and cloud computing on a Linux guest system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the general concept of virtual machines and containers.
  • Understand common elements virtual machines in an IaaS cloud, such as computing instances, block storage and networking.
  • Understand unique properties of a Linux system which have to changed when a system is cloned or used as a template.
  • Understand how system images are used to deploy virtual machines, cloud instances and containers.
  • Understand Linux extensions which integrate Linux with a virtualization product.
  • Awareness of cloud-init.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Virtual machine
  • Linux container
  • Application container
  • Guest drivers
  • SSH host keys
  • D-Bus machine id

Topic 103: GNU and Unix Commands

103.1 Work on the command line

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the Bash shell.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line.
  • Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables.
  • Use and edit command history.
  • Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • bash
  • echo
  • env
  • export
  • pwd
  • set
  • unset
  • type
  • which
  • man
  • uname
  • history
  • .bash_history
  • Quoting

103.2 Process text streams using filters

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to apply filters to text streams.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • bzcat
  • cat
  • cut
  • head
  • less
  • md5sum
  • nl
  • od
  • paste
  • sed
  • sha256sum
  • sha512sum
  • sort
  • split
  • tail
  • tr
  • uniq
  • wc
  • xzcat
  • zcat

103.3 Perform basic file management

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Copy, move and remove files and directories individually.
  • Copy multiple files and directories recursively.
  • Remove files and directories recursively.
  • Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands.
  • Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time.
  • Usage of tar, cpio and dd.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • cp
  • find
  • mkdir
  • mv
  • ls
  • rm
  • rmdir
  • touch
  • tar
  • cpio
  • dd
  • file
  • gzip
  • gunzip
  • bzip2
  • bunzip2
  • xz
  • unxz
  • file globbing

103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error.
  • Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command.
  • Use the output of one command as arguments to another command.
  • Send output to both stdout and a file.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • tee
  • xargs

103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to perform basic process management.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Run jobs in the foreground and background.
  • Signal a program to continue running after logout.
  • Monitor active processes.
  • Select and sort processes for display.
  • Send signals to processes.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • &
  • bg
  • fg
  • jobs
  • kill
  • nohup
  • ps
  • top
  • free
  • uptime
  • pgrep
  • pkill
  • killall
  • watch
  • screen
  • tmux

103.6 Modify process execution priorities

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Know the default priority of a job that is created.
  • Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default.
  • Change the priority of a running process.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • nice
  • ps
  • renice
  • top

103.7 Search text files using regular expressions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements as well as understanding the differences between basic and extended regular expressions. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements.
  • Understand the differences between basic and extended regular expressions.
  • Understand the concepts of special characters, character classes, quantifiers and anchors.
  • Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.
  • Use regular expressions to delete, change and substitute text.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • grep
  • egrep
  • fgrep
  • sed
  • regex(7)

 

103.8 Basic file editing

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text. It also includes awareness of other common editors and setting the default editor.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Navigate a document using vi.
  • Understand and use vi modes.
  • Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text in vi.
  • Awareness of Emacs, nano and vim.
  • Configure the standard editor.

Terms and Utilities:

  • vi
  • /, ?
  • h,j,k,l
  • i, o, a
  • d, p, y, dd, yy
  • ZZ, :w!, :q!
  • EDITOR

Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

104.1 Create partitions and filesystems

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage MBR and GPT partition tables

  • Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as:

    • ext2/ext3/ext4

    • XFS

    • VFAT

    • exFAT

  • Basic feature knowledge of Btrfs, including multi-device filesystems, compression and subvolumes.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • fdisk

  • gdisk

  • parted

  • mkfs

  • mkswap

104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Verify the integrity of filesystems.

  • Monitor free space and inodes.

  • Repair simple filesystem problems.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • du

  • df

  • fsck

  • e2fsck

  • mke2fs

  • tune2fs

  • xfs_repair

  • xfs_fsr

  • xfs_db

104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manually mount and unmount filesystems.

  • Configure filesystem mounting on bootup.

  • Configure user mountable removable filesystems.

  • Use of labels and UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems.

  • Awareness of systemd mount units.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/fstab

  • /media/

  • mount

  • umount

  • blkid

  • lsblk

104.4 Removed

104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions and ownerships.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories.

  • Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security.

  • Know how to change the file creation mask.

  • Use the group field to grant file access to group members.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • chmod

  • umask

  • chown

  • chgrp

 

104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create links.

  • Identify hard and/or soft links.

  • Copying versus linking files.

  • Use links to support system administration tasks.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ln

  • ls

 

104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be thoroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS.

  • Find files and commands on a Linux system.

  • Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • find

  • locate

  • updatedb

  • whereis

  • which

  • type

  • /etc/updatedb.conf

  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

LPIC-2 is the second certification in LPI’s multi-level professional certification program. The LPIC-2 will validate the candidate's ability to administer small to medium–sized mixed networks. 

Current Version: 4.5 (Exam codes 201-450 and 202-450)
Objectives: 201-450202-450
Prerequisites: The candidate must have an active LPIC-1 certification to receive LPIC-2 certification
Requirements: Passing exams 201 and 202
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, French

To become LPIC-2 certified the candidate must be able to:

  • perform advanced system administration, including common tasks regarding the Linux kernel, system startup and maintenance;
  • perform advanced Management of block storage and file systems as well as advanced networking and authentication and system security, including firewall and VPN;
  • install and configure fundamental network services, including DHCP, DNS,  SSH, Web servers, file servers using FTP, NFS and Samba, email delivery; and
  • supervise assistants and advise management on automation and purchases.

Topic 200: Capacity Planning

200.1 Measure and Troubleshoot Resource Usage

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should be able to measure hardware resource and network bandwidth, identify and troubleshoot resource problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Measure CPU usage
  • Measure memory usage
  • Measure disk I/O
  • Measure network I/O
  • Measure firewalling and routing throughput
  • Map client bandwidth usage
  • Match / correlate system symptoms with likely problems
  • Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • iostat
  • netstat
  • w
  • top
  • sar
  • processes blocked on I/O
  • blocks out
  • vmstat
  • pstree, ps
  • Isof
  • uptime
  • swap
  • blocks in

 

200.2 Predict Future Resource Needs

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage.
  • Predict capacity break point of a configuration
  • Observe growth rate of capacity usage
  • Graph the trend of capacity usage
  • Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG and Cacti

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • diagnose
  • predict growth
  • resource exhaustion

Topic 201: Linux Kernel

201.1 Kernel Components

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to utilize kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x documentation

Terms and Utilities:

  • /usr/src/linux/
  • /usr/src/linux/Documentation/
  • zImage
  • bzImage
  • xz compression

201.2 Compiling a kernel

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • /usr/src/linux/
  • Kernel Makefiles
  • Kernel 2.6.x/3.x make targets
  • Customize the current kernel configuration.
  • Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
  • Install a new kernel and any modules.
  • Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.
  • Module configuration files
  • Use DKMS to compile kernel modules.
  • Awareness of dracut

Terms and Utilities:

  • mkinitrd
  • mkinitramfs
  • make
  • make targets (all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg)
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • module tools
  • /usr/src/linux/.config
  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/
  • depmod
  • dkms

201.3 Kernel runtime management and troubleshooting

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules
  • Manually load and unload kernel modules
  • Determine when modules can be unloaded
  • Determine what parameters a module accepts
  • Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.
  • /proc filesystem
  • Content of /, /boot/ , and /lib/modules/
  • Tools and utilities to analyze information about the available hardware
  • udev rules

Terms and Utilities:

  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
  • module configuration files in /etc/
  • /proc/sys/kernel/
  • /sbin/depmod
  • /sbin/rmmod
  • /sbin/modinfo
  • /bin/dmesg
  • /sbin/lspci
  • /usr/bin/lsdev
  • /sbin/lsmod
  • /sbin/modprobe
  • /sbin/insmod
  • /bin/uname
  • /usr/bin/lsusb
  • /etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/
  • /sbin/sysctl
  • udevmonitor
  • udevadm monitor
  • /etc/udev/

Topic 202: System Startup

202.1 Customizing SysV-init system startup

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various targets / run levels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV Init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init run levels.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Systemd
  • SysV init
  • Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)

Terms and Utilities:

  • /usr/lib/systemd/
  • /etc/systemd/
  • /run/systemd/
  • systemctl
  • systemd-delta
  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/
  • /etc/rc.d/
  • chkconfig
  • update-rc.d
  • init and telinit

202.2 System Recovery

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • BIOS and UEFI
  • NVMe booting
  • GRUB version 2 and Legacy
  • grub shell
  • boot loader start and hand off to kernel
  • kernel loading
  • hardware initialisation and setup
  • daemon/service initialisation and setup
  • Know the different boot loader install locations on a hard disk or removable device.
  • Overwrite standard boot loader options and using boot loader shells.
  • Use systemd rescue and emergency modes.

Terms and Utilities:

  • mount
  • fsck
  • inittab, telinit and init with SysV init
  • The contents of /boot/, /boot/grub/ and /boot/efi/
  • EFI System Partition (ESP)
  • GRUB
  • grub-install
  • efibootmgr
  • UEFI shell
  • initrd, initramfs
  • Master boot record
  • systemctl

202.3 Alternate Bootloaders

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX
  • Understanding of PXE for both BIOS and UEFI
  • Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot

Terms and Utilities:

  • syslinux
  • extlinux
  • isolinux.bin
  • isolinux.cfg
  • isohdpfx.bin
  • efiboot.img
  • pxelinux.0
  • pxelinux.cfg/
  • uefi/shim.efi
  • uefi/grubx64.efi

Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices

203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • The concept of the fstab configuration
  • Tools and utilities for handling swap partitions and files
  • Use of UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems
  • Understanding of systemd mount units

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/fstab
  • /etc/mtab
  • /proc/mounts
  • mount and umount
  • blkid
  • sync
  • swapon
  • swapoff

203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem​

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4
  • Tools and utilities to perform basic Btrfs operations, including subvolumes and snapshots
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate XFS
  • Awareness of ZFS

Terms and Utilities:

  • mkfs (mkfs.*)
  • mkswap
  • fsck (fsck.*)
  • tune2fs, dumpe2fs and debugfs
  • btrfs, btrfs-convert
  • xfs_info, xfs_check, xfs_repair, xfsdump and xfsrestore
  • smartd, smartctl

203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • autofs configuration files
  • Understanding of automount units
  • UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities
  • Awareness of other CD-ROM filesystems (HFS)
  • Awareness of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)
  • Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/auto.master
  • /etc/auto.[dir]
  • mkisofs
  • cryptsetup

Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration

204.1 Configuring RAID

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Software raid configuration files and utilities

Terms and Utilities:

  • mdadm.conf
  • mdadm
  • /proc/mdstat
  • partition type 0xFD

204.2 Adjusting Storage Device Access

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
  • Tools and utilities to configure Solid State Drives including AHCI and NVMe
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)
  • Awareness of sdparm command and its uses
  • Tools and utilities for iSCSI
  • Awareness of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)

Terms and Utilities:

  • hdparm, sdparm
  • nvme
  • tune2fs
  • fstrim
  • sysctl
  • /dev/hd*, /dev/sd*, /dev/nvme*
  • iscsiadm, scsi_id, iscsid and iscsid.conf
  • WWID, WWN, LUN numbers

204.3 Logical Volume Manager

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools in the LVM suite
  • Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes
  • Creating and maintaining snapshots
  • Activating volume groups

Terms and Utilities:

  • /sbin/pv*
  • /sbin/lv*
  • /sbin/vg*
  • mount
  • /dev/mapper/
  • lvm.conf

Topic 205: Network Configuration

205.1 Basic networking configuration

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Configuring basic access to wireless networks

Terms and Utilities:

  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • arp
  • iw
  • iwconfig
  • iwlist

205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Utilities to manipulate routing tables
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to analyze the status of the network devices
  • Utilities to monitor and analyze the TCP/IP traffic

Terms and Utilities:

  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • arp
  • ss
  • netstat
  • lsof
  • ping, ping6
  • nc
  • tcpdump
  • nmap

205.3 Troubleshooting Network Issues

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Location and content of access restriction files
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to manage routing tables
  • Utilities to list network states.
  • Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
  • Methods of information about the recognized and used hardware devices
  • System initialization files and their contents (SysV init process)
  • Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration

Terms and Utilities:

  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • ss
  • netstat
  • /etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
  • ping, ping6
  • traceroute, traceroute6
  • mtr
  • hostname
  • System log files such as /var/log/syslog, /var/log/messages and the systemd journal
  • dmesg
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/hostname, /etc/HOSTNAME
  • /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny

Topic 206: System Maintenance

206.1 Make and install programs from source

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities
  • Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs
  • Apply parameters to a configure script
  • Know where sources are stored by default

Terms and Utilities:

  • /usr/src/
  • gunzip
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • xz
  • tar
  • configure
  • make
  • uname
  • install
  • patch

206.2 Backup operations

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups
  • Awareness of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula, Bareos and BackupPC
  • Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDR, disk or other backup media
  • Perform partial and manual backups.
  • Verify the integrity of backup files.
  • Partially or fully restore backups.

Terms and Utilities:

  • /bin/sh
  • dd
  • tar
  • /dev/st* and /dev/nst*
  • mt
  • rsync

206.3 Notify users on system-related issues

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • ​Automate communication with users through logon messages
  • Inform active users of system maintenance

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/issue
  • /etc/issue.net
  • /etc/motd
  • wall
  • /sbin/shutdown
  • systemctl
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

The LPIC-3 certification is the culmination of LPI’s multi-level professional certification program. LPIC-3 is designed for the enterprise-level Linux professional and represents the highest level of professional, distribution-neutral Linux certification within the industry. Three separate LPIC-3 specialty certifications are available. Passing any one of the three exams will grant the LPIC-3 certification for that specialty.

The LPIC-3 300: Mixed Environment certification covers the administration of Linux systems enterprise-wide in a mixed environment.

Current Version: 1.0 (Exam code 300-100)
Objectives: 300-100
Prerequisites: The candidate must have an active LPIC-2 certification to receive LPIC-3 certification
Requirements: Passing the 300 exam
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, French

Topic 390: OpenLDAP Configuration

390.1 OpenLDAP Replication

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the server replication available with OpenLDAP.
Weight: 3

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Replication concepts
  • Configure OpenLDAP replication
  • Analyze replication log files
  • Understand replica hubs
  • LDAP referrals
  • LDAP sync replication

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • master / slave server
  • multi-master replication
  • consumer
  • replica hub
  • one-shot mode
  • referral
  • syncrepl
  • pull-based / push-based synchronization
  • refreshOnly and refreshAndPersist
  • replog

390.2 Securing the Directory

Description: Candidates should be able to configure encrypted access to the LDAP directory, and restrict access at the firewall level.
Weight: 3

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Securing the directory with SSL and TLS
  • Firewall considerations
  • Unauthenticated access methods
  • User / password authentication methods
  • Maintanence of SASL user DB
  • Client / server certificates

Terms and Utilities:

  • SSL / TLS
  • Security Strength Factors (SSF)
  • SASL
  • proxy authorization
  • StartTLS
  • iptables

390.3 OpenLDAP Server Performance Tuning

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be capable of measuring the performance of an LDAP server, and tuning configuration directives.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Measure OpenLDAP performance
  • Tune software configuration to increase performance
  • Understand indexes

Terms and Utilities:

  • index
  • DB_CONFIG

Topic 391: OpenLDAP as an Authentication Backend

391.1 LDAP Integration with PAM and NSS

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure PAM and NSS to retrieve information from an LDAP directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure PAM to use LDAP for authentication
  • Configure NSS to retrieve information from LDAP
  • Configure PAM modules in various Unix environments

Terms and Utilities:

  • PAM
  • NSS
  • /etc/pam.d/
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf

391.2 Integrating LDAP with Active Directory and Kerberos

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate LDAP with Active Directory Services.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Kerberos integration with LDAP
  • Cross platform authentication
  • Single sign-on concepts
  • Integration and compatibility limitations between OpenLDAP and Active Directory

Terms and Utilities:

  • Kerberos
  • Active Directory
  • single sign-on
  • DNS

Topic 392: Samba Basics

392.1 Samba Concepts and Architecture

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the essential concepts of Samba. As well, the major differences between Samba3 and Samba4 should be known.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the roles of the Samba daemons and components
  • Understand key issues regarding heterogeneous networks
  • Identify key TCP/UDP ports used with SMB/CIFS
  • Knowledge of Samba3 and Samba4 differences

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/services
  • Samba daemons: smbd, nmbd, samba, winbindd

392.2 Configure Samba

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the Samba daemons for a wide variety of purposes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of Samba server configuration file structure
  • Knowledge of Samba variables and configuration parameters
  • Troubleshoot and debug configuration problems with Samba

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • smb.conf parameters
  • smb.conf variables
  • testparm
  • secrets.tdb

392.3 Regular Samba Maintenance

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should know about the various tools and utilities that are part of a Samba installation.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Monitor and interact with running Samba daemons
  • Perform regular backups of Samba configuration and state data

Terms and Utilities:

  • smbcontrol
  • smbstatus
  • tdbbackup

392.4 Troubleshooting Samba

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the structure of trivial database files and know how troubleshoot problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure Samba logging
  • Backup TDB files
  • Restore TDB files
  • Identify TDB file corruption
  • Edit / list TDB file content

Terms and Utilities:

  • /var/log/samba/
  • log level
  • debuglevel
  • smbpasswd
  • pdbedit
  • secrets.tdb
  • tdbbackup
  • tdbdump
  • tdbrestore
  • tdbtool

392.5 Internationalization

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to work with internationalization character codes and code pages.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand internationalization character codes and code pages
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to share, file and directory names in a non-English environment
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to user and group naming in a non-English environment
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to computer naming in a non-English environment

Terms and Utilities:

  • internationalization
  • character codes
  • code pages
  • smb.conf
  • dos charset, display charset and unix charset

Topic 393: Samba Share Configuration

393.1 File Services

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to create and configure file shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create and configure file sharing
  • Plan file service migration
  • Limit access to IPC$
  • Create scripts for user and group handling of file shares
  • Samba share access configuration parameters

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • [homes]
  • smbcquotas
  • smbsh
  • browseable, writeable, valid users, write list, read list, read only and guest ok
  • IPC$
  • mountsmbmount

393.2 Linux File System and Share/Service Permissions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should understand file permissions on a Linux file system in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of file / directory permission control
  • Understand how Samba interacts with Linux file system permissions and ACLs
  • Use Samba VFS to store Windows ACLs

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • chmod, chown
  • create mask, directory mask, force create mode, force directory mode
  • smbcacls
  • getfacl, setfacl
  • vfs_acl_xattr, vfs_acl_tdb and vfs objects

393.3 Print Services

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage print shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create and configure printer sharing
  • Configure integration between Samba and CUPS
  • Manage Windows print drivers and configure downloading of print drivers
  • Configure [print$]
  • Understand security concerns with printer sharing
  • Uploading printer drivers for Point’n’Print driver installation using ‘Add Print Driver Wizard’ in Windows

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • [print$]
  • CUPS
  • cupsd.conf
  • /var/spool/samba/.
  • smbspool
  • rpcclient
  • net

Topic 394: Samba User and Group Management

394.1 Managing User Accounts and Groups

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage user and group accounts in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manager user and group accounts
  • Understand user and group mapping
  • Knowledge of user account management tools
  • Use of the smbpasswd program
  • Force ownership of file and directory objects

Terms and Utilities:

  • pdbedit
  • smb.conf
  • samba-tool user (with subcommands)
  • samba-tool group (with subcommands)
  • smbpasswd
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/group
  • force user, force group.
  • idmap

394.2 Authentication, Authorization and Winbind

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand the various authentication mechanisms and configure access control. Candidates should be able to install and configure the Winbind service.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Setup a local password database
  • Perform password synchronization
  • Knowledge of different passdb backends
  • Convert between Samba passdb backends
  • Integrate Samba with LDAP
  • Configure Winbind service
  • Configure PAM and NSS

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • smbpasswd, tdbsam, ldapsam
  • passdb backend
  • libnss_winbind
  • libpam_winbind
  • libpam_smbpass
  • wbinfo
  • getent
  • SID and foreign SID
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/group

Topic 395: Samba Domain Integration

395.1 Samba as a PDC and BDC

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to setup and maintain primary and backup domain controllers. Candidates should be able to manage Windows/Linux client access to the NT-Style domains.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and configure domain membership and trust relationships
  • Create and maintain a primary domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4
  • Create and maintain a backup domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4
  • Add computers to an existing domain
  • Configure logon scripts
  • Configure roaming profiles
  • Configure system policies

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • security mode
  • server role
  • domain logons
  • domain master
  • logon script
  • logon path
  • NTConfig.pol
  • net
  • profiles
  • add machine script
  • profile acls

395.2 Samba4 as an AD compatible Domain Controller

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure Samba 4 as an AD Domain Controller.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure and test Samba 4 as an AD DC
  • Using smbclient to confirm AD operation
  • Understand how Samba integrates with AD services: DNS, Kerberos, NTP, LDAP

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • server role
  • samba-tool domain (with subcommands)
  • samba

395.3 Configure Samba as a Domain Member Server

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate Linux servers into an environment where Active Directory is present.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Joining Samba to an existing NT4 domain
  • Joining Samba to an existing AD domain
  • Ability to obtain a TGT from a KDC

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • server role
  • server security
  • net command
  • kinit, TGT and REALM

Topic 396: Samba Name Services

396.1 NetBIOS and WINS

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be familiar with NetBIOS/WINS concepts and understand network browsing.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand WINS concepts
  • Understand NetBIOS concepts
  • Understand the role of a local master browser
  • Understand the role of a domain master browser
  • Understand the role of Samba as a WINS server
  • Understand name resolution
  • Configure Samba as a WINS server
  • Configure WINS replication
  • Understand NetBIOS browsing and browser elections
  • Understand NETBIOS name types

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • nmblookup
  • smbclient
  • name resolve order
  • lmhosts
  • wins support, wins server, wins proxy, dns proxy
  • domain master, os level, preferred master

396.2 Active Directory Name Resolution

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the internal DNS server with Samba4.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and manage DNS for Samba4 as an AD Domain Controller
  • DNS forwarding with the internal DNS server of Samba4

Terms and Utilities:

  • samba-tool dns (with subcommands)
  • smb.conf
  • dns forwarder
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • dig, host

Topic 397: Working with Linux and Windows Clients

397.1 CIFS Integration

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be comfortable working with CIFS in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand SMB/CIFS concepts
  • Access and mount remote CIFS shares from a Linux client
  • Securely storing CIFS credentials
  • Understand features and benefits of CIFS
  • Understand permissions and file ownership of remote CIFS shares

Terms and Utilities:

  • SMB/CIFS
  • mount, mount.cifs
  • smbclient
  • smbget
  • smbtar
  • smbtree
  • findsmb
  • smb.conf
  • smbcquotas
  • /etc/fstab

397.2 Working with Windows Clients

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with remote Windows clients, and configure Windows workstations to access file and print services from Linux servers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of Windows clients
  • Explore browse lists and SMB clients from Windows
  • Share file / print resources from Windows
  • Use of the smbclient program
  • Use of the Windows net utility

Terms and Utilities:

  • Windows net command
  • smbclient
  • control panel
  • rdesktop
  • workgroup