LPI Linux Professional Institute

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Linux Professional Institute (LPI) is the global certification standard and career support organization for open source professionals. With more than 175,000 certification holders, it’s the world’s first and largest vendor-neutral Linux and open source certification body. LPI has certified professionals in over 180 countries, delivers exams in multiple languages, and has hundreds of training partners. 

ECCS Africa is an LPI Approved Training Partner covering the Indian Ocean and African Region delivering Classroom Based Instructor Led, On-site, Virtual and Online Courses in English and French. For more information please use the contact form for assistance.

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  • Overview
  • How to enroll?

The Linux Essentials certificate is a great way to show employers that you have the foundational skills required for your next job or promotion. It also serves as an ideal stepping stone to the more advanced LPIC Professional Certification track for Linux Systems Administrators.

Linux adoption continues to rise world-wide as individual users, government entities and industries ranging from automotive to space exploration embrace open source technologies. This expansion of open source in enterprise is redefining traditional Information and Communication Technology (ICT) job roles to require more Linux skills. Whether you’re starting your career in open source, or looking for advancement, independently verifying your skill set can help you stand out to hiring managers or your management team.
The Linux Essential educational certificate also serves as a great introduction to the more complete and advanced Linux Professional certification track.

Current Version: 1.6 (Exam code 010-160)
Objectives: 010-160
Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification
Requirements: Passing the Linux Essentials 010 exam
Validity Period: Lifetime
Languages: English or French

To receive the Linux Essentials Certificate the candidate must:

  • have an understanding of the Linux and open source industry and knowledge of the most popular open source Applications;
  • understand the major components of the Linux operating system, and have the technical proficiency to work on the Linux command line; and
  • have a basic understanding of security and administration related topics such as user/group management, working on the command line, and permissions.
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

LPIC-1 is the first certification in LPI’s multi-level Linux professional certification program. The LPIC-1 will validate the candidate's ability to perform maintenance tasks on the command line, install and configure a computer running Linux and configure basic networking.

The LPIC-1 is designed to reflect current research and validate a candidate's proficiency in real world system administration. The objectives are tied to real-world job skills, which we determine through job task analysis surveying during exam development.

Current Version: 5.0 (Exam codes 101-500 and 102-500)
Objectives: 101-500102-500
Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification
Requirements: Passing exams 101 and 102
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, or French 

To become LPIC-1 certified the candidate must be able to:

  • understand the architecture of a Linux system;
  • install and maintain a Linux workstation, including X11 and setup it up as a network client;
  • work at the Linux command line, including common GNU and Unix commands;
  • handle files and access permissions as well as system security; and
  • perform easy maintenance tasks: help users, add users to a larger system, backup and restore, shutdown and reboot.

Topic 101: System Architecture

101.1 Determine and configure hardware settings

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to determine and configure fundamental system hardware

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Enable and disable integrated peripherals.

  • Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices.

  • Determine hardware resources for devices.

  • Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsusb, lspci, etc.).

  • Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices.

  • Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev and dbus.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /sys/

  • /proc/

  • /dev/

  • modprobe

  • lsmod

  • lspci

  • lsusb

101.2 Boot the system

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Provide common commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time.

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the boot sequence from BIOS/UEFI to boot completion.

  • Understanding of SysVinit and systemd.

  • Awareness of Upstart.

  • Check boot events in the log files.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • dmesg

  • journalctl

  • BIOS

  • UEFI

  • bootloader

  • kernel

  • initramfs

  • init

  • SysVinit

  • systemd

101.3 Change runlevels / boot targets and shutdown or reboot system

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manage the SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target. It also includes awareness of Upstart as an alternative to SysVinit or systemd.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Set the default runlevel or boot target.

  • Change between runlevels / boot targets including single user mode.

  • Shutdown and reboot from the command line.

  • Alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets or other major system events.

  • Properly terminate processes.

  • Awareness of acpid.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/inittab

  • shutdown

  • init

  • /etc/init.d/

  • telinit

  • systemd

  • systemctl

  • /etc/systemd/

  • /usr/lib/systemd/

  • wall

Topic 102: Linux Installation and Package Management

102.1 Design hard disk layout

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks.
  • Tailor the design to the intended use of the system.
  • Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting.
  • Knowledge of basic features of LVM.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • / (root) filesystem
  • /var filesystem
  • /home filesystem
  • /boot filesystem
  • EFI System Partition (ESP)
  • swap space
  • mount points
  • partitions

102.2 Install a boot manager

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options.
  • Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB Legacy.
  • Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2.
  • Interact with the boot loader.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf
  • grub-install
  • grub-mkconfig
  • MBR

102.3 Manage shared libraries

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Identify shared libraries.
  • Identify the typical locations of system libraries.
  • Load shared libraries.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ldd
  • ldconfig
  • /etc/ld.so.conf
  • LD_LIBRARY_PATH

102.4 Use Debian package management

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages.
  • Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed.
  • Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed).
  • Awareness of apt.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/apt/sources.list
  • dpkg
  • dpkg-reconfigure
  • apt-get
  • apt-cache

102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management

Weight:  3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM, YUM and Zypper.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM, YUM and Zypper.
  • Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures.
  • Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from.
  • Awareness of dnf.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • rpm
  • rpm2cpio
  • /etc/yum.conf
  • /etc/yum.repos.d/
  • yum
  • zypper

 

102.6 Linux as a virtualization guest

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should understand the implications of virtualization and cloud computing on a Linux guest system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the general concept of virtual machines and containers.
  • Understand common elements virtual machines in an IaaS cloud, such as computing instances, block storage and networking.
  • Understand unique properties of a Linux system which have to changed when a system is cloned or used as a template.
  • Understand how system images are used to deploy virtual machines, cloud instances and containers.
  • Understand Linux extensions which integrate Linux with a virtualization product.
  • Awareness of cloud-init.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Virtual machine
  • Linux container
  • Application container
  • Guest drivers
  • SSH host keys
  • D-Bus machine id

Topic 103: GNU and Unix Commands

103.1 Work on the command line

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the Bash shell.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line.
  • Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables.
  • Use and edit command history.
  • Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • bash
  • echo
  • env
  • export
  • pwd
  • set
  • unset
  • type
  • which
  • man
  • uname
  • history
  • .bash_history
  • Quoting

103.2 Process text streams using filters

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to apply filters to text streams.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • bzcat
  • cat
  • cut
  • head
  • less
  • md5sum
  • nl
  • od
  • paste
  • sed
  • sha256sum
  • sha512sum
  • sort
  • split
  • tail
  • tr
  • uniq
  • wc
  • xzcat
  • zcat

103.3 Perform basic file management

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Copy, move and remove files and directories individually.
  • Copy multiple files and directories recursively.
  • Remove files and directories recursively.
  • Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands.
  • Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time.
  • Usage of tar, cpio and dd.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • cp
  • find
  • mkdir
  • mv
  • ls
  • rm
  • rmdir
  • touch
  • tar
  • cpio
  • dd
  • file
  • gzip
  • gunzip
  • bzip2
  • bunzip2
  • xz
  • unxz
  • file globbing

103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error.
  • Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command.
  • Use the output of one command as arguments to another command.
  • Send output to both stdout and a file.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • tee
  • xargs

103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to perform basic process management.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Run jobs in the foreground and background.
  • Signal a program to continue running after logout.
  • Monitor active processes.
  • Select and sort processes for display.
  • Send signals to processes.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • &
  • bg
  • fg
  • jobs
  • kill
  • nohup
  • ps
  • top
  • free
  • uptime
  • pgrep
  • pkill
  • killall
  • watch
  • screen
  • tmux

103.6 Modify process execution priorities

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Know the default priority of a job that is created.
  • Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default.
  • Change the priority of a running process.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • nice
  • ps
  • renice
  • top

103.7 Search text files using regular expressions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements as well as understanding the differences between basic and extended regular expressions. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements.
  • Understand the differences between basic and extended regular expressions.
  • Understand the concepts of special characters, character classes, quantifiers and anchors.
  • Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.
  • Use regular expressions to delete, change and substitute text.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • grep
  • egrep
  • fgrep
  • sed
  • regex(7)

 

103.8 Basic file editing

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text. It also includes awareness of other common editors and setting the default editor.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Navigate a document using vi.
  • Understand and use vi modes.
  • Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text in vi.
  • Awareness of Emacs, nano and vim.
  • Configure the standard editor.

Terms and Utilities:

  • vi
  • /, ?
  • h,j,k,l
  • i, o, a
  • d, p, y, dd, yy
  • ZZ, :w!, :q!
  • EDITOR

Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

104.1 Create partitions and filesystems

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage MBR and GPT partition tables

  • Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as:

    • ext2/ext3/ext4

    • XFS

    • VFAT

    • exFAT

  • Basic feature knowledge of Btrfs, including multi-device filesystems, compression and subvolumes.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • fdisk

  • gdisk

  • parted

  • mkfs

  • mkswap

104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Verify the integrity of filesystems.

  • Monitor free space and inodes.

  • Repair simple filesystem problems.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • du

  • df

  • fsck

  • e2fsck

  • mke2fs

  • tune2fs

  • xfs_repair

  • xfs_fsr

  • xfs_db

104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manually mount and unmount filesystems.

  • Configure filesystem mounting on bootup.

  • Configure user mountable removable filesystems.

  • Use of labels and UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems.

  • Awareness of systemd mount units.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/fstab

  • /media/

  • mount

  • umount

  • blkid

  • lsblk

104.4 Removed

104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions and ownerships.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories.

  • Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security.

  • Know how to change the file creation mask.

  • Use the group field to grant file access to group members.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • chmod

  • umask

  • chown

  • chgrp

 

104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create links.

  • Identify hard and/or soft links.

  • Copying versus linking files.

  • Use links to support system administration tasks.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ln

  • ls

 

104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be thoroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS.

  • Find files and commands on a Linux system.

  • Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • find

  • locate

  • updatedb

  • whereis

  • which

  • type

  • /etc/updatedb.conf

  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

LPIC-2 is the second certification in LPI’s multi-level professional certification program. The LPIC-2 will validate the candidate's ability to administer small to medium–sized mixed networks. 

Current Version: 4.5 (Exam codes 201-450 and 202-450)
Objectives: 201-450202-450
Prerequisites: The candidate must have an active LPIC-1 certification to receive LPIC-2 certification
Requirements: Passing exams 201 and 202
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, French

To become LPIC-2 certified the candidate must be able to:

  • perform advanced system administration, including common tasks regarding the Linux kernel, system startup and maintenance;
  • perform advanced Management of block storage and file systems as well as advanced networking and authentication and system security, including firewall and VPN;
  • install and configure fundamental network services, including DHCP, DNS,  SSH, Web servers, file servers using FTP, NFS and Samba, email delivery; and
  • supervise assistants and advise management on automation and purchases.

Topic 200: Capacity Planning

200.1 Measure and Troubleshoot Resource Usage

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should be able to measure hardware resource and network bandwidth, identify and troubleshoot resource problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Measure CPU usage
  • Measure memory usage
  • Measure disk I/O
  • Measure network I/O
  • Measure firewalling and routing throughput
  • Map client bandwidth usage
  • Match / correlate system symptoms with likely problems
  • Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • iostat
  • netstat
  • w
  • top
  • sar
  • processes blocked on I/O
  • blocks out
  • vmstat
  • pstree, ps
  • Isof
  • uptime
  • swap
  • blocks in

 

200.2 Predict Future Resource Needs

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage.
  • Predict capacity break point of a configuration
  • Observe growth rate of capacity usage
  • Graph the trend of capacity usage
  • Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG and Cacti

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • diagnose
  • predict growth
  • resource exhaustion

Topic 201: Linux Kernel

201.1 Kernel Components

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to utilize kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x documentation

Terms and Utilities:

  • /usr/src/linux/
  • /usr/src/linux/Documentation/
  • zImage
  • bzImage
  • xz compression

201.2 Compiling a kernel

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • /usr/src/linux/
  • Kernel Makefiles
  • Kernel 2.6.x/3.x make targets
  • Customize the current kernel configuration.
  • Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
  • Install a new kernel and any modules.
  • Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.
  • Module configuration files
  • Use DKMS to compile kernel modules.
  • Awareness of dracut

Terms and Utilities:

  • mkinitrd
  • mkinitramfs
  • make
  • make targets (all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg)
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • module tools
  • /usr/src/linux/.config
  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/
  • depmod
  • dkms

201.3 Kernel runtime management and troubleshooting

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules
  • Manually load and unload kernel modules
  • Determine when modules can be unloaded
  • Determine what parameters a module accepts
  • Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.
  • /proc filesystem
  • Content of /, /boot/ , and /lib/modules/
  • Tools and utilities to analyze information about the available hardware
  • udev rules

Terms and Utilities:

  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
  • module configuration files in /etc/
  • /proc/sys/kernel/
  • /sbin/depmod
  • /sbin/rmmod
  • /sbin/modinfo
  • /bin/dmesg
  • /sbin/lspci
  • /usr/bin/lsdev
  • /sbin/lsmod
  • /sbin/modprobe
  • /sbin/insmod
  • /bin/uname
  • /usr/bin/lsusb
  • /etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/
  • /sbin/sysctl
  • udevmonitor
  • udevadm monitor
  • /etc/udev/

Topic 202: System Startup

202.1 Customizing SysV-init system startup

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various targets / run levels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV Init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init run levels.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Systemd
  • SysV init
  • Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)

Terms and Utilities:

  • /usr/lib/systemd/
  • /etc/systemd/
  • /run/systemd/
  • systemctl
  • systemd-delta
  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/
  • /etc/rc.d/
  • chkconfig
  • update-rc.d
  • init and telinit

202.2 System Recovery

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • BIOS and UEFI
  • NVMe booting
  • GRUB version 2 and Legacy
  • grub shell
  • boot loader start and hand off to kernel
  • kernel loading
  • hardware initialisation and setup
  • daemon/service initialisation and setup
  • Know the different boot loader install locations on a hard disk or removable device.
  • Overwrite standard boot loader options and using boot loader shells.
  • Use systemd rescue and emergency modes.

Terms and Utilities:

  • mount
  • fsck
  • inittab, telinit and init with SysV init
  • The contents of /boot/, /boot/grub/ and /boot/efi/
  • EFI System Partition (ESP)
  • GRUB
  • grub-install
  • efibootmgr
  • UEFI shell
  • initrd, initramfs
  • Master boot record
  • systemctl

202.3 Alternate Bootloaders

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX
  • Understanding of PXE for both BIOS and UEFI
  • Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot

Terms and Utilities:

  • syslinux
  • extlinux
  • isolinux.bin
  • isolinux.cfg
  • isohdpfx.bin
  • efiboot.img
  • pxelinux.0
  • pxelinux.cfg/
  • uefi/shim.efi
  • uefi/grubx64.efi

Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices

203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • The concept of the fstab configuration
  • Tools and utilities for handling swap partitions and files
  • Use of UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems
  • Understanding of systemd mount units

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/fstab
  • /etc/mtab
  • /proc/mounts
  • mount and umount
  • blkid
  • sync
  • swapon
  • swapoff

203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem​

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4
  • Tools and utilities to perform basic Btrfs operations, including subvolumes and snapshots
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate XFS
  • Awareness of ZFS

Terms and Utilities:

  • mkfs (mkfs.*)
  • mkswap
  • fsck (fsck.*)
  • tune2fs, dumpe2fs and debugfs
  • btrfs, btrfs-convert
  • xfs_info, xfs_check, xfs_repair, xfsdump and xfsrestore
  • smartd, smartctl

203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • autofs configuration files
  • Understanding of automount units
  • UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities
  • Awareness of other CD-ROM filesystems (HFS)
  • Awareness of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)
  • Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/auto.master
  • /etc/auto.[dir]
  • mkisofs
  • cryptsetup

Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration

204.1 Configuring RAID

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Software raid configuration files and utilities

Terms and Utilities:

  • mdadm.conf
  • mdadm
  • /proc/mdstat
  • partition type 0xFD

204.2 Adjusting Storage Device Access

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
  • Tools and utilities to configure Solid State Drives including AHCI and NVMe
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)
  • Awareness of sdparm command and its uses
  • Tools and utilities for iSCSI
  • Awareness of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)

Terms and Utilities:

  • hdparm, sdparm
  • nvme
  • tune2fs
  • fstrim
  • sysctl
  • /dev/hd*, /dev/sd*, /dev/nvme*
  • iscsiadm, scsi_id, iscsid and iscsid.conf
  • WWID, WWN, LUN numbers

204.3 Logical Volume Manager

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools in the LVM suite
  • Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes
  • Creating and maintaining snapshots
  • Activating volume groups

Terms and Utilities:

  • /sbin/pv*
  • /sbin/lv*
  • /sbin/vg*
  • mount
  • /dev/mapper/
  • lvm.conf

Topic 205: Network Configuration

205.1 Basic networking configuration

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Configuring basic access to wireless networks

Terms and Utilities:

  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • arp
  • iw
  • iwconfig
  • iwlist

205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Utilities to manipulate routing tables
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to analyze the status of the network devices
  • Utilities to monitor and analyze the TCP/IP traffic

Terms and Utilities:

  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • arp
  • ss
  • netstat
  • lsof
  • ping, ping6
  • nc
  • tcpdump
  • nmap

205.3 Troubleshooting Network Issues

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Location and content of access restriction files
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to manage routing tables
  • Utilities to list network states.
  • Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
  • Methods of information about the recognized and used hardware devices
  • System initialization files and their contents (SysV init process)
  • Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration

Terms and Utilities:

  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • ss
  • netstat
  • /etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
  • ping, ping6
  • traceroute, traceroute6
  • mtr
  • hostname
  • System log files such as /var/log/syslog, /var/log/messages and the systemd journal
  • dmesg
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/hostname, /etc/HOSTNAME
  • /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny

Topic 206: System Maintenance

206.1 Make and install programs from source

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities
  • Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs
  • Apply parameters to a configure script
  • Know where sources are stored by default

Terms and Utilities:

  • /usr/src/
  • gunzip
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • xz
  • tar
  • configure
  • make
  • uname
  • install
  • patch

206.2 Backup operations

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups
  • Awareness of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula, Bareos and BackupPC
  • Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDR, disk or other backup media
  • Perform partial and manual backups.
  • Verify the integrity of backup files.
  • Partially or fully restore backups.

Terms and Utilities:

  • /bin/sh
  • dd
  • tar
  • /dev/st* and /dev/nst*
  • mt
  • rsync

206.3 Notify users on system-related issues

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • ​Automate communication with users through logon messages
  • Inform active users of system maintenance

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/issue
  • /etc/issue.net
  • /etc/motd
  • wall
  • /sbin/shutdown
  • systemctl
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

The LPIC-3 certification is the culmination of LPI’s multi-level professional certification program. LPIC-3 is designed for the enterprise-level Linux professional and represents the highest level of professional, distribution-neutral Linux certification within the industry. Three separate LPIC-3 specialty certifications are available. Passing any one of the three exams will grant the LPIC-3 certification for that specialty.

The LPIC-3 300: Mixed Environment certification covers the administration of Linux systems enterprise-wide in a mixed environment.

Current Version: 1.0 (Exam code 300-100)
Objectives: 300-100
Prerequisites: The candidate must have an active LPIC-2 certification to receive LPIC-3 certification
Requirements: Passing the 300 exam
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, French

Topic 390: OpenLDAP Configuration

390.1 OpenLDAP Replication

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the server replication available with OpenLDAP.
Weight: 3

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Replication concepts
  • Configure OpenLDAP replication
  • Analyze replication log files
  • Understand replica hubs
  • LDAP referrals
  • LDAP sync replication

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • master / slave server
  • multi-master replication
  • consumer
  • replica hub
  • one-shot mode
  • referral
  • syncrepl
  • pull-based / push-based synchronization
  • refreshOnly and refreshAndPersist
  • replog

390.2 Securing the Directory

Description: Candidates should be able to configure encrypted access to the LDAP directory, and restrict access at the firewall level.
Weight: 3

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Securing the directory with SSL and TLS
  • Firewall considerations
  • Unauthenticated access methods
  • User / password authentication methods
  • Maintanence of SASL user DB
  • Client / server certificates

Terms and Utilities:

  • SSL / TLS
  • Security Strength Factors (SSF)
  • SASL
  • proxy authorization
  • StartTLS
  • iptables

390.3 OpenLDAP Server Performance Tuning

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be capable of measuring the performance of an LDAP server, and tuning configuration directives.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Measure OpenLDAP performance
  • Tune software configuration to increase performance
  • Understand indexes

Terms and Utilities:

  • index
  • DB_CONFIG

Topic 391: OpenLDAP as an Authentication Backend

391.1 LDAP Integration with PAM and NSS

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure PAM and NSS to retrieve information from an LDAP directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure PAM to use LDAP for authentication
  • Configure NSS to retrieve information from LDAP
  • Configure PAM modules in various Unix environments

Terms and Utilities:

  • PAM
  • NSS
  • /etc/pam.d/
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf

391.2 Integrating LDAP with Active Directory and Kerberos

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate LDAP with Active Directory Services.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Kerberos integration with LDAP
  • Cross platform authentication
  • Single sign-on concepts
  • Integration and compatibility limitations between OpenLDAP and Active Directory

Terms and Utilities:

  • Kerberos
  • Active Directory
  • single sign-on
  • DNS

Topic 392: Samba Basics

392.1 Samba Concepts and Architecture

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the essential concepts of Samba. As well, the major differences between Samba3 and Samba4 should be known.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the roles of the Samba daemons and components
  • Understand key issues regarding heterogeneous networks
  • Identify key TCP/UDP ports used with SMB/CIFS
  • Knowledge of Samba3 and Samba4 differences

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/services
  • Samba daemons: smbd, nmbd, samba, winbindd

392.2 Configure Samba

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the Samba daemons for a wide variety of purposes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of Samba server configuration file structure
  • Knowledge of Samba variables and configuration parameters
  • Troubleshoot and debug configuration problems with Samba

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • smb.conf parameters
  • smb.conf variables
  • testparm
  • secrets.tdb

392.3 Regular Samba Maintenance

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should know about the various tools and utilities that are part of a Samba installation.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Monitor and interact with running Samba daemons
  • Perform regular backups of Samba configuration and state data

Terms and Utilities:

  • smbcontrol
  • smbstatus
  • tdbbackup

392.4 Troubleshooting Samba

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the structure of trivial database files and know how troubleshoot problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure Samba logging
  • Backup TDB files
  • Restore TDB files
  • Identify TDB file corruption
  • Edit / list TDB file content

Terms and Utilities:

  • /var/log/samba/
  • log level
  • debuglevel
  • smbpasswd
  • pdbedit
  • secrets.tdb
  • tdbbackup
  • tdbdump
  • tdbrestore
  • tdbtool

392.5 Internationalization

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to work with internationalization character codes and code pages.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand internationalization character codes and code pages
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to share, file and directory names in a non-English environment
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to user and group naming in a non-English environment
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to computer naming in a non-English environment

Terms and Utilities:

  • internationalization
  • character codes
  • code pages
  • smb.conf
  • dos charset, display charset and unix charset

Topic 393: Samba Share Configuration

393.1 File Services

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to create and configure file shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create and configure file sharing
  • Plan file service migration
  • Limit access to IPC$
  • Create scripts for user and group handling of file shares
  • Samba share access configuration parameters

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • [homes]
  • smbcquotas
  • smbsh
  • browseable, writeable, valid users, write list, read list, read only and guest ok
  • IPC$
  • mountsmbmount

393.2 Linux File System and Share/Service Permissions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should understand file permissions on a Linux file system in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of file / directory permission control
  • Understand how Samba interacts with Linux file system permissions and ACLs
  • Use Samba VFS to store Windows ACLs

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • chmod, chown
  • create mask, directory mask, force create mode, force directory mode
  • smbcacls
  • getfacl, setfacl
  • vfs_acl_xattr, vfs_acl_tdb and vfs objects

393.3 Print Services

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage print shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create and configure printer sharing
  • Configure integration between Samba and CUPS
  • Manage Windows print drivers and configure downloading of print drivers
  • Configure [print$]
  • Understand security concerns with printer sharing
  • Uploading printer drivers for Point’n’Print driver installation using ‘Add Print Driver Wizard’ in Windows

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • [print$]
  • CUPS
  • cupsd.conf
  • /var/spool/samba/.
  • smbspool
  • rpcclient
  • net

Topic 394: Samba User and Group Management

394.1 Managing User Accounts and Groups

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage user and group accounts in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manager user and group accounts
  • Understand user and group mapping
  • Knowledge of user account management tools
  • Use of the smbpasswd program
  • Force ownership of file and directory objects

Terms and Utilities:

  • pdbedit
  • smb.conf
  • samba-tool user (with subcommands)
  • samba-tool group (with subcommands)
  • smbpasswd
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/group
  • force user, force group.
  • idmap

394.2 Authentication, Authorization and Winbind

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand the various authentication mechanisms and configure access control. Candidates should be able to install and configure the Winbind service.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Setup a local password database
  • Perform password synchronization
  • Knowledge of different passdb backends
  • Convert between Samba passdb backends
  • Integrate Samba with LDAP
  • Configure Winbind service
  • Configure PAM and NSS

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • smbpasswd, tdbsam, ldapsam
  • passdb backend
  • libnss_winbind
  • libpam_winbind
  • libpam_smbpass
  • wbinfo
  • getent
  • SID and foreign SID
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/group

Topic 395: Samba Domain Integration

395.1 Samba as a PDC and BDC

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to setup and maintain primary and backup domain controllers. Candidates should be able to manage Windows/Linux client access to the NT-Style domains.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and configure domain membership and trust relationships
  • Create and maintain a primary domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4
  • Create and maintain a backup domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4
  • Add computers to an existing domain
  • Configure logon scripts
  • Configure roaming profiles
  • Configure system policies

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • security mode
  • server role
  • domain logons
  • domain master
  • logon script
  • logon path
  • NTConfig.pol
  • net
  • profiles
  • add machine script
  • profile acls

395.2 Samba4 as an AD compatible Domain Controller

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure Samba 4 as an AD Domain Controller.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure and test Samba 4 as an AD DC
  • Using smbclient to confirm AD operation
  • Understand how Samba integrates with AD services: DNS, Kerberos, NTP, LDAP

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • server role
  • samba-tool domain (with subcommands)
  • samba

395.3 Configure Samba as a Domain Member Server

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate Linux servers into an environment where Active Directory is present.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Joining Samba to an existing NT4 domain
  • Joining Samba to an existing AD domain
  • Ability to obtain a TGT from a KDC

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • server role
  • server security
  • net command
  • kinit, TGT and REALM

Topic 396: Samba Name Services

396.1 NetBIOS and WINS

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be familiar with NetBIOS/WINS concepts and understand network browsing.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand WINS concepts
  • Understand NetBIOS concepts
  • Understand the role of a local master browser
  • Understand the role of a domain master browser
  • Understand the role of Samba as a WINS server
  • Understand name resolution
  • Configure Samba as a WINS server
  • Configure WINS replication
  • Understand NetBIOS browsing and browser elections
  • Understand NETBIOS name types

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • nmblookup
  • smbclient
  • name resolve order
  • lmhosts
  • wins support, wins server, wins proxy, dns proxy
  • domain master, os level, preferred master

396.2 Active Directory Name Resolution

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the internal DNS server with Samba4.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and manage DNS for Samba4 as an AD Domain Controller
  • DNS forwarding with the internal DNS server of Samba4

Terms and Utilities:

  • samba-tool dns (with subcommands)
  • smb.conf
  • dns forwarder
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • dig, host

Topic 397: Working with Linux and Windows Clients

397.1 CIFS Integration

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be comfortable working with CIFS in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand SMB/CIFS concepts
  • Access and mount remote CIFS shares from a Linux client
  • Securely storing CIFS credentials
  • Understand features and benefits of CIFS
  • Understand permissions and file ownership of remote CIFS shares

Terms and Utilities:

  • SMB/CIFS
  • mount, mount.cifs
  • smbclient
  • smbget
  • smbtar
  • smbtree
  • findsmb
  • smb.conf
  • smbcquotas
  • /etc/fstab

397.2 Working with Windows Clients

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with remote Windows clients, and configure Windows workstations to access file and print services from Linux servers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of Windows clients
  • Explore browse lists and SMB clients from Windows
  • Share file / print resources from Windows
  • Use of the smbclient program
  • Use of the Windows net utility

Terms and Utilities:

  • Windows net command
  • smbclient
  • control panel
  • rdesktop
  • workgroup
 
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

The LPIC-3 certification is the culmination of LPI’s multi-level professional certification program. LPIC-3 is designed for the enterprise-level Linux professional and represents the highest level of professional, distribution-neutral Linux certification within the industry. Three separate LPIC-3 specialty certifications are available. Passing any one of the three exams will grant the LPIC-3 certification for that specialty.

The LPIC-3 303: Security certification covers the administration of Linux systems enterprise-wide with an emphasis on security.

Current Version: 2.0 (Exam code 303-200)
Objectives: 303-200
Prerequisites: The candidate must have an active LPIC-2 certification to receive LPIC-3 certification
Requirements: Passing the 303 exam
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, French

Topic 325: Cryptography

325.1 X.509 Certificates and Public Key Infrastructures

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand X.509 certificates and public key infrastructures. They should know how to configure and use OpenSSL to implement certification authorities and issue SSL certificates for various purposes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand X.509 certificates, X.509 certificate lifecycle, X.509 certificate fields and X.509v3 certificate extensions
  • Understand trust chains and public key infrastructures
  • Generate and manage public and private keys
  • Create, operate and secure a certification authority
  • Request, sign and manage server and client certificates
  • Revoke certificates and certification authorities

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • openssl, including relevant subcommands
  • OpenSSL configuration
  • PEM, DER, PKCS
  • CSR
  • CRL
  • OCSP

325.2 X.509 Certificates for Encryption, Signing and Authentication

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should know how to use X.509 certificates for both server and client authentication. Candidates should be able to implement user and server authentication for Apache HTTPD. The version of Apache HTTPD covered is 2.4 or higher.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand SSL, TLS and protocol versions
  • Understand common transport layer security threats, for example Man-in-the-Middle
  • Configure Apache HTTPD with mod_ssl to provide HTTPS service, including SNI and HSTS
  • Configure Apache HTTPD with mod_ssl to authenticate users using certificates
  • Configure Apache HTTPD with mod_ssl to provide OCSP stapling
  • Use OpenSSL for SSL/TLS client and server tests

Terms and Utilities:

  • Intermediate certification authorities
  • Cipher configuration (no cipher-specific knowledge)
  • httpd.conf
  • mod_ssl
  • openssl

325.3 Encrypted File Systems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to setup and configure encrypted file systems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand block device and file system encryption
  • Use dm-crypt with LUKS to encrypt block devices
  • Use eCryptfs to encrypt file systems, including home directories and
  • PAM integration
  • Be aware of plain dm-crypt and EncFS

Terms and Utilities:

  • cryptsetup
  • cryptmount
  • /etc/crypttab
  • ecryptfsd
  • ecryptfs-* commands
  • mount.ecryptfs, umount.ecryptfs
  • pam_ecryptfs

325.4 DNS and Cryptography

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should have experience and knowledge of cryptography in the context of DNS and its implementation using BIND. The version of BIND covered is 9.7 or higher.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understanding of DNSSEC and DANE
  • Configure and troubleshoot BIND as an authoritative name server serving DNSSEC secured zones
  • Configure BIND as an recursive name server that performs DNSSEC validation on behalf of its clients
  • Key Signing Key, Zone Signing Key, Key Tag
  • Key generation, key storage, key management and key rollover
  • Maintenance and re-signing of zones
  • Use DANE to publish X.509 certificate information in DNS
  • Use TSIG for secure communication with BIND

Terms and Utilities:

  • DNS, EDNS, Zones, Resource Records
  • DNS resource records: DS, DNSKEY, RRSIG, NSEC, NSEC3, NSEC3PARAM, TLSA
  • DO-BitAD-Bit
  • TSIG
  • named.conf
  • dnssec-keygen
  • dnssec-signzone
  • dnssec-settime
  • dnssec-dsfromkey
  • rndc
  • dig
  • delv
  • openssl

Topic 326: Host Security

326.1 Host Hardening

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to secure computers running Linux against common threats. This includes kernel and software configuration.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure BIOS and boot loader (GRUB 2) security
  • Disable useless software and services
  • Use sysctl for security related kernel configuration, particularly ASLR, Exec-Shield and IP / ICMP configuration
  • Exec-Shield and IP / ICMP configuration
  • Limit resource usage
  • Work with chroot environments
  • Drop unnecessary capabilities
  • Be aware of the security advantages of virtualization

Terms and Utilities:

  • grub.cfg
  • chkconfig, systemctl
  • ulimit
  • /etc/security/limits.conf
  • pam_limits.so
  • chroot
  • sysctl
  • /etc/sysctl.conf

326.2 Host Intrusion Detection

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the use and configuration of common host intrusion detection software. This includes updates and maintenance as well as automated host scans.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use and configure the Linux Audit system
  • Use chkrootkit
  • Use and configure rkhunter, including updates
  • Use Linux Malware Detect
  • Automate host scans using cron
  • Configure and use AIDE, including rule management
  • Be aware of OpenSCAP

Terms and Utilities:

  • auditd
  • auditctl
  • ausearch, aureport
  • auditd.conf
  • auditd.rules
  • pam_tty_audit.so
  • chkrootkit
  • rkhunter
  • /etc/rkhunter.conf
  • maldet
  • conf.maldet
  • aide
  • /etc/aide/aide.conf

326.3 User Management and Authentication

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be familiar with management and authentication of user accounts. This includes configuration and use of NSS, PAM, SSSD and Kerberos for both local and remote directories and authentication mechanisms as well as enforcing a password policy.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and configure NSS
  • Understand and configure PAM
  • Enforce password complexity policies and periodic password changes
  • Lock accounts automatically after failed login attempts
  • Configure and use SSSD
  • Configure NSS and PAM for use with SSSD
  • Configure SSSD authentication against Active Directory, IPA, LDAP, Kerberos and local domains
  • Kerberos and local domains
  • Obtain and manage Kerberos tickets

Terms and Utilities:

  • nsswitch.conf
  • /etc/login.defs
  • pam_cracklib.so
  • chage
  • pam_tally.so, pam_tally2.so
  • faillog
  • pam_sss.so
  • sssd
  • sssd.conf
  • sss_* commands
  • krb5.conf
  • kinit, klist, kdestroy

326.4 FreeIPA Installation and Samba Integration

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be familiar with FreeIPA v4.x. This includes installation and maintenance of a server instance with a FreeIPA domain as well as integration of FreeIPA with Active Directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand FreeIPA, including its architecture and components
  • Understand system and configuration prerequisites for installing FreeIPA
  • Install and manage a FreeIPA server and domain
  • Understand and configure Active Directory replication and Kerberos cross-realm trusts
  • Be aware of sudo, autofs, SSH and SELinux integration in FreeIPA

Terms and Utilities:

  • 389 Directory Server, MIT Kerberos, Dogtag Certificate System, NTP, DNS, SSSD, certmonger
  • ipa, including relevant subcommands
  • ipa-server-install, ipa-client-install, ipa-replica-install
  • ipa-replica-prepare, ipa-replica-manage

Topic 327: Access Control

327.1 Discretionary Access Control

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates are required to understand Discretionary Access Control and know how to implement it using Access Control Lists. Additionally, candidates are required to understand and know how to use Extended Attributes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and manage file ownership and permissions, including SUID and SGID
  • Understand and manage access control lists
  • Understand and manage extended attributes and attribute classes

Terms and Utilities:

  • getfacl
  • setfacl
  • getfattr
  • setfattr

327.2 Mandatory Access Control

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be familiar with Mandatory Access Control systems for Linux. Specifically, candidates should have a thorough knowledge of SELinux. Also, candidates should be aware of other Mandatory Access Control systems for Linux. This includes major features of these systems but not configuration and use.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the concepts of TE, RBAC, MAC and DAC
  • Configure, manage and use SELinux
  • Be aware of AppArmor and Smack

Terms and Utilities:

  • getenforce, setenforce, selinuxenabled
  • getsebool, setsebool, togglesebool
  • fixfiles, restorecon, setfiles
  • newroleruncon
  • semanage
  • sestatus, seinfo
  • apol
  • seaudit, seaudit-report, audit2why, audit2allow
  • /etc/selinux/*

327.3 Network File Systems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should have experience and knowledge of security issues in use and configuration of NFSv4 clients and servers as well as CIFS client services. Earlier versions of NFS are not required knowledge.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand NFSv4 security issues and improvements
  • Configure NFSv4 server and clients
  • Understand and configure NFSv4 authentication mechanisms (LIPKEY, SPKM, Kerberos)
  • Understand and use NFSv4 pseudo file system
  • Understand and use NFSv4 ACLs
  • Configure CIFS clients
  • Understand and use CIFS Unix Extensions
  • Understand and configure CIFS security modes (NTLM, Kerberos)
  • Understand and manage mapping and handling of CIFS ACLs and SIDs in a Linux system

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/exports
  • /etc/idmap.conf
  • nfs4acl
  • mount.cifs parameters related to ownership, permissions and security modes
  • winbind
  • getcifsacl, setcifsacl

Topic 328: Network Security

328.1 Network Hardening

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to secure networks against common threats. This includes verification of the effectiveness of security measures.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure FreeRADIUS to authenticate network nodes
  • Use nmap to scan networks and hosts, including different scan methods
  • Use Wireshark to analyze network traffic, including filters and statistics
  • Identify and deal with rogue router advertisements and DHCP messages

Terms and Utilities:

  • radiusd
  • radmin
  • radtest, radclient
  • radlastradwho
  • radiusd.conf
  • /etc/raddb/*
  • nmap
  • wireshark
  • tshark
  • tcpdump
  • ndpmon

328.2 Network Intrusion Detection

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the use and configuration of network security scanning, network monitoring and network intrusion detection software. This includes updating and maintaining the security scanners.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Implement bandwidth usage monitoring
  • Configure and use Snort, including rule management
  • Configure and use OpenVAS, including NASL

Terms and Utilities:

  • ntop
  • Cacti
  • snort
  • snort-stat
  • /etc/snort/*
  • openvas-adduser, openvas-rmuser
  • openvas-nvt-sync
  • openvassd
  • openvas-mkcert
  • /etc/openvas/*

328.3 Packet Filtering

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the use and configuration of packet filters. This includes netfilter, iptables and ip6tables as well as basic knowledge of nftables, nft and ebtables.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand common firewall architectures, including DMZ
  • Understand and use netfilter, iptables and ip6tables, including standard modules, tests and targets
  • Implement packet filtering for both IPv4 and IPv6
  • Implement connection tracking and network address translation
  • Define IP sets and use them in netfilter rules
  • Have basic knowledge of nftables and nft
  • Have basic knowledge of ebtables
  • Be aware of conntrackd

Terms and Utilities:

  • iptables
  • ip6tables
  • iptables-save, iptables-restore
  • ip6tables-save, ip6tables-restore
  • ipset
  • nft
  • ebtables

328.4 Virtual Private Networks

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the use of OpenVPN and IPsec.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure and operate OpenVPN server and clients for both bridged and routed VPN networks
  • Configure and operate IPsec server and clients for routed VPN networks using IPsec-Tools / racoon
  • Awareness of L2TP

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/openvpn/*
  • openvpn server and client
  • setkey
  • /etc/ipsec-tools.conf
  • /etc/racoon/racoon.conf
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

The LPIC-3 certification is the culmination of LPI’s multi-level professional certification program. LPIC-3 is designed for the enterprise-level Linux professional and represents the highest level of professional, distribution-neutral Linux certification within the industry. Three separate LPIC-3 specialty certifications are available. Passing any one of the three exams will grant the LPIC-3 certification for that specialty.

The LPIC-3 304: Virtualization and High Availability certification covers the administration of Linux systems enterprise-wide with an emphasis on Virtualization & High Availability.

Current Version: 2.0 (Exam code 304-200)
Objectives: 304-200
Prerequisites: The candidate must have an active LPIC-2 certification to receive LPIC-3 certification
Requirements: Passing the 304 exam
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, French

Topic 330: Virtualization

330.1 Virtualization Concepts and Theory

Weight: 8

Description: Candidates should know and understand the general concepts, theory and terminology of Virtualization. This includes Xen, KVM and libvirt terminology.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Terminology
  • Pros and Cons of Virtualization
  • Variations of Virtual Machine Monitors
  • Migration of Physical to Virtual Machines
  • Migration of Virtual Machines between Host systems
  • Cloud Computing

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Hypervisor
  • Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM)
  • Paravirtualization (PV)
  • Container Virtualization
  • Emulation and Simulation
  • CPU flags
  • /proc/cpuinfo
  • Migration (P2V, V2V)
  • IaaS, PaaS, SaaS

330.2 Xen

Weight: 9

Description: Candidates should be able to install, configure, maintain, migrate and troubleshoot Xen installations. The focus is on Xen version 4.x.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Xen architecture, networking and storage
  • Xen configuration
  • Xen utilities
  • Troubleshooting Xen installations
  • Basic knowledge of XAPI
  • Awareness of XenStore
  • Awareness of Xen Boot Parameters
  • Awareness of the xm utility

Terms and Utilities:

  • Domain0 (Dom0), DomainU (DomU)
  • PV-DomU, HVM-DomU
  • /etc/xen/
  • xl
  • xl.cfg
  • xl.conf
  • xe
  • xentop

330.3 KVM

Weight: 9

Description: Candidates should be able to install, configure, maintain, migrate and troubleshoot KVM installations.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • KVM architecture, networking and storage
  • KVM configuration
  • KVM utilities
  • Troubleshooting KVM installations

Terms and Utilities:

  • Kernel modules: kvm, kvm-intel and kvm-amd
  • /etc/kvm/
  • /dev/kvm
  • kvm
  • KVM monitor
  • qemu
  • qemu-img

330.4 Other Virtualization Solutions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should have some basic knowledge and experience with alternatives to Xen and KVM.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic knowledge of OpenVZ and LXC
  • Awareness of other virtualization technologies
  • Basic knowledge of virtualization provisioning tools

Terms and Utilities:

  • OpenVZ
  • VirtualBox
  • LXC
  • docker
  • packer
  • vagrant

330.5 Libvirt and Related Tools

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should have basic knowledge and experience with the libvirt library and commonly available tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • libvirt architecture, networking and storage
  • Basic technical knowledge of libvirt and virsh
  • Awareness of oVirt

Terms and Utilities:

  • libvirtd
  • /etc/libvirt/
  • virsh
  • oVirt

330.6 Cloud Management Tools

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should have basic feature knowledge of commonly available cloud management tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic feature knowledge of OpenStack and CloudStack
  • Awareness of Eucalyptus and OpenNebula

Terms and Utilities:

  • OpenStack
  • CloudStack
  • Eucalyptus
  • OpenNebula

Topic 334: High Availability Cluster Management

334.1 High Availability Concepts and Theory

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand the properties and design approaches of high availability clusters.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the most important cluster architectures
  • Understand recovery and cluster reorganization mechanisms
  • Design an appropriate cluster architecture for a given purpose
  • Application aspects of high availability
  • Operational considerations of high availability

Terms and Utilities:

  • Active/Passive Cluster, Active/Active Cluster
  • Failover Cluster, Load Balanced Cluster
  • Shared-Nothing Cluster, Shared-Disk Cluster
  • Cluster resources
  • Cluster services
  • Quorum
  • Fencing
  • Split brain
  • Redundancy
  • Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF)
  • Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)
  • Service Level Agreement (SLA)
  • Disaster Recovery
  • Replication
  • Session handling

334.2 Load Balanced Clusters

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should know how to install, configure, maintain and troubleshoot LVS. This includes the configuration and use of keepalived and ldirectord. Candidates should further be able to install, configure, maintain and troubleshoot HAProxy.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understanding of LVS / IPVS
  • Basic knowledge of VRRP
  • Configuration of keepalived
  • Configuration of ldirectord
  • Backend server network configuration
  • Understanding of HAProxy
  • Configuration of HAProxy

Terms and Utilities:

  • ipvsadm
  • syncd
  • LVS Forwarding (NAT, Direct Routing, Tunneling, Local Node)
  • connection scheduling algorithms
  • keepalived configuration file
  • ldirectord configuration file
  • genhash
  • HAProxy configuration file
  • load balancing algorithms
  • ACLs

334.3 Failover Clusters

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should have experience in the installation, configuration, maintenance and troubleshooting of a Pacemaker cluster. This includes the use of Corosync. The focus is on Pacemaker 1.1 for Corosync 2.x.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Pacemaker architecture and components (CIB, CRMd, PEngine, LRMd, DC, STONITHd)
  • Pacemaker cluster configuration
  • Resource classes (OCF, LSB, Systemd, Upstart, Service, STONITH, Nagios)
  • Resource rules and constraints (location, order, colocation)
  • Advanced resource features (templates, groups, clone resources, multi-state resources)
  • Pacemaker management using pcs
  • Pacemaker management using crmsh
  • Configuration and Management of corosync in conjunction with Pacemaker
  • Awareness of other cluster engines (OpenAIS, Heartbeat, CMAN)

Terms and Utilities:

  • pcs
  • crm
  • crm_mon
  • crm_verify
  • crm_simulate
  • crm_shadow
  • crm_resource
  • crm_attribute
  • crm_node
  • crm_standby
  • cibadmin
  • corosync.conf
  • authkey
  • corosync-cfgtool
  • corosync-cmapctl
  • corosync-quorumtool
  • stonith_admin

334.4 High Availability in Enterprise Linux Distributions

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be aware of how enterprise Linux distributions integrate High Availability technologies.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On
  • Basic knowledge of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension

Terms and Utilities:

  • Distribution specific configuration tools
  • Integration of cluster engines, load balancers, storage technology, cluster filesystems, etc.

Topic 335: High Availability Cluster Storage

335.1 DRBD / cLVM

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates are expected to have the experience and knowledge to install, configure, maintain and troubleshoot DRBD devices. This includes integration with Pacemaker. DRBD configuration of version 8.4.x is covered. Candidates are further expected to be able to manage LVM configuration within a shared storage cluster.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understanding of DRBD resources, states and replication modes
  • Configuration of DRBD resources, networking, disks and devices
  • Configuration of DRBD automatic recovery and error handling
  • Management of DRBD using drbdadm
  • Basic knowledge of drbdsetup and drbdmeta
  • Integration of DRBD with Pacemaker
  • cLVM
  • Integration of cLVM with Pacemaker

Terms and Utilities:

  • Protocol A, B and C
  • Primary, Secondary
  • Three-way replication
  • drbd kernel module
  • drbdadm
  • drbdsetup
  • drbdmeta
  • /etc/drbd.conf
  • /proc/drbd
  • LVM2
  • clvmd
  • vgchange, vgs

335.2 Clustered File Systems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should know how to install, maintain and troubleshoot installations using GFS2 and OCFS2. This includes integration with Pacemaker as well as awareness of other clustered filesystems available in a Linux environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the principles of cluster file systems
  • Create, maintain and troubleshoot GFS2 file systems in a cluster
  • Create, maintain and troubleshoot OCFS2 file systems in a cluster
  • Integration of GFS2 and OCFS2 with Pacemaker
  • Awareness of the O2CB cluster stack
  • Awareness of other commonly used clustered file systems

Terms and Utilities:

  • Distributed Lock Manager (DLM)
  • mkfs.gfs2
  • mount.gfs2
  • fsck.gfs2
  • gfs2_grow
  • gfs2_edit
  • gfs2_jadd
  • mkfs.ocfs2
  • mount.ocfs2
  • fsck.ocfs2
  • tunefs.ocfs2
  • mounted.ocfs2
  • o2info
  • o2image
  • CephFS
  • GlusterFS
  • AFS
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?

Businesses across the globe are increasingly implementing DevOps practices to optimize daily systems administration and software development tasks. As a result, businesses across industries are hiring IT professionals that can effectively apply DevOps to reduce delivery time and improve quality in the development of new software products.

To meet this growing need for qualified professionals, LPI developed the Linux Professional Institute DevOps Tools Engineer certification which verifies the skills needed to use the tools that enhance collaboration in workflows throughout system administration and software development.

In developing the Linux Professional Institute DevOps Tools Engineer certification, LPI reviewed the DevOps tools landscape and defined a set of essential skills when applying DevOps. As such, the certification exam focuses on the practical skills required to work successfully in a DevOps environment – focusing on the skills needed to use the most prominent DevOps tools. The result is a certification that covers the intersection between development and operations, making it relevant for all IT professionals working in the field of DevOps.

Current Version: 1.0 (Exam code 701-100)
Objectives: 701-100
Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification.
Requirements: Pass the Linux Professional Institute DevOps Tools Engineer exam. The 90-minute exam consists of 60 multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank questions.
Validity Period: 5 years
Languages: English, French

To receive the Linux Professional Institute DevOps Tools Engineer Certification the candidate must:

  • Have a working knowledge of DevOps-related domains such as Software Engineering and Architecture, Container and Machine Deployment, Configuration Management and Monitoring.
  • Have proficiency in prominent free and open source utilities such as Docker, Vagrant, Ansible, Puppet, Git, and Jenkins.

Topic 701: Software Engineering

701.1 Modern Software Development (weight: 6) 

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should be able to design software solutions suitable for modern runtime environments. Candidates should understand how services handle data persistence, sessions, status information, transactions, concurrency, security, performance, availability, scaling, load balancing, messaging, monitoring and APIs. Furthermore, candidates should understand the implications of agile and DevOps on software development.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and design service based applications
  • Understand common API concepts and standards
  • Understand aspects of data storage, service status and session handling
  • Design software to be run in containers
  • Design software to be deployed to cloud services
  • Awareness of risks in the migration and integration of monolithic legacy software
  • Understand common application security risks and ways to mitigate them
  • Understand the concept of agile software development
  • Understand the concept of DevOps and its implications to software developers and operators

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • REST, JSON
  • Service Orientated Architectures (SOA)
  • Microservices
  • Immutable servers
  • Loose coupling
  • Cross site scripting, SQL injections, verbose error reports, API authentication, consistent enforcement of transport encryption
  • CORS headers and CSRF tokens
  • ACID properties and CAP theorem

701.2 Standard Components and Platforms for Software (weight: 2)

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand services offered by common cloud platforms. They should be able to include these services in their application architectures and deployment toolchains and understand the required service configurations. OpenStack service components are used as a reference implementation.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Features and concepts of object storage
  • Features and concepts of relational and NoSQL databases
  • Features and concepts of message brokers and message queues
  • Features and concepts of big data services
  • Features and concepts of application runtimes / PaaS
  • Features and concepts of content delivery networks

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • OpenStack Swift
  • OpenStack Trove
  • OpenStack Zaqar
  • CloudFoundry
  • OpenShift

701.3 Source Code Management (weight: 5)

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to use Git to manage and share source code. This includes creating and contributing to a repository as well as the usage of tags, branches and remote repositories. Furthermore, the candidate should be able to merge files and resolve merging conflicts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand Git concepts and repository structure
  • Manage files within a Git repository
  • Manage branches and tags
  • Work with remote repositories and branches as well as submodules
  • Merge files and branches
  • Awareness of SVN and CVS, including concepts of centralized and distributed SCM solutions

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • git
  • .gitignore

701.4 Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (weight: 5)

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand the principles and components of a continuous integration and continuous delivery pipeline. Candidates should be able to implement a CI/CD pipeline using Jenkins, including triggering the CI/CD pipeline, running unit, integration and acceptance tests, packaging software and handling the deployment of tested software artifacts. This objective covers the feature set of Jenkins version 2.0 or later.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the concepts of Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery
  • Understand the components of a CI/CD pipeline, including builds, unit, integration and acceptance tests, artifact management, delivery and deployment
  • Understand deployment best practices
  • Understand the architecture and features of Jenkins, including Jenkins Plugins, Jenkins API, notifications and distributed builds
  • Define and run jobs in Jenkins, including parameter handling
  • Fingerprinting, artifacts and artifact repositories
  • Understand how Jenkins models continuous delivery pipelines and implement a declarative continuous delivery pipeline in Jenkins
  • Awareness of possible authentication and authorization models
  • Understanding of the Pipeline Plugin
  • Understand the features of important Jenkins modules such as Copy Artifact Plugin, Fingerprint Plugin, Docker Pipeline, Docker Build and Publish plugin, Git Plugin, Credentials Plugin
  • Awareness of Artifactory and Nexus

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Step, Node, Stage
  • Jenkins SDL
  • Jenkinsfile
  • Declarative Pipeline
  • Blue-green and canary deployment

Topic 702: Container Management

702.1 Container Usage (weight: 7)

Weight: 7

Description: Candidates should be able to build, share and operate Docker containers. This includes creating Dockerfiles, using a Docker registry, creating and interacting with containers as well as connecting containers to networks and storage volumes. This objective covers the feature set of Docker version 17.06 or later.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the Docker architecture
  • Use existing Docker images from a Docker registry
  • Create Dockerfiles and build images from Dockerfiles
  • Upload images to a Docker registry
  • Operate and access Docker containers
  • Connect container to Docker networks
  • Use Docker volumes for shared and persistent container storage

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • docker
  • Dockerfile
  • .dockerignore

702.2 Container Deployment and Orchestration (weight: 5)

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to run and manage multiple containers that work together to provide a service. This includes the orchestration of Docker containers using Docker Compose in conjunction with an existing Docker Swarm cluster as well as using an existing Kubernetes cluster. This objective covers the feature sets of Docker Compose version 1.14 or later, Docker Swarm included in Docker 17.06 or later and Kubernetes 1.6 or later.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the application model of Docker Compose
  • Create and run Docker Compose Files (version 3 or later)
  • Understand the architecture and functionality of Docker Swarm mode
  • Run containers in a Docker Swarm, including the definition of services, stacks and the usage of secrets
  • Understand the architecture and application model Kubernetes
  • Define and manage a container-based application for Kubernetes, including the definition of Deployments, Services, ReplicaSets and Pods

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • docker-compose
  • docker
  • kubectl

702.3 Container Infrastructure (weight: 4)

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to set up a runtime environment for containers. This includes running containers on a local workstation as well as setting up a dedicated container host. Furthermore, candidates should be aware of other container infrastructures, storage, networking and container specific security aspects. This objective covers the feature set of Docker version 17.06 or later and Docker Machine 0.12 or later.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use Docker Machine to setup a Docker host
  • Understand Docker networking concepts, including overlay networks
  • Create and manage Docker networks
  • Understand Docker storage concepts
  • Create and manage Docker volumes
  • Awareness of Flocker and flannel
  • Understand the concepts of service discovery
  • Basic feature knowledge of CoreOS Container Linux, rkt and etcd
  • Understand security risks of container virtualization and container images and how to mitigate them

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • docker-machine

Topic 703: Machine Deployment

703.1 Virtual Machine Deployment (weight: 4)

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to automate the deployment of a virtual machine with an operating system and a specific set of configuration files and software.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand Vagrant architecture and concepts, including storage and networking
  • Retrieve and use boxes from Atlas
  • Create and run Vagrantfiles
  • Access Vagrant virtual machines
  • Share and synchronize folder between a Vagrant virtual machine and the host system
  • Understand Vagrant provisioning, including File, Shell, Ansible and Docker
  • Understand multi-machine setup

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • vagrant
  • Vagrantfile

703.2 Cloud Deployment (weight: 2)

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure IaaS cloud instances and adjust them to match their available hardware resources, specifically, disk space and volumes. Additinally, candidates should be able to configure instances to allow secure SSH logins and prepare the instances to be ready for a configuration management tool such as Ansible.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understanding the features and concepts of cloud-init, including user-data and initializing and configuring cloud-init
  • Use cloud-init to create, resize and mount file systems, configure user accounts, including login credentials such as SSH keys and install software packages from the distribution’s repository
  • Understand the features and implications of IaaS clouds and virtualization for a computing instance, such as snapshotting, pausing, cloning and resource limits.

703.3 System Image Creation (weight: 2)

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create images for containers, virtual machines and IaaS cloud instances.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the functionality and features of Packer
  • Create and maintain template files
  • Build images from template files using different builders

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • packer

Topic 704: Configuration Management

704.1 Ansible (weight: 8)

Weight: 8

Description: Candidates should be able to use Ansible to ensure a target server is in a specific state regarding its configuration and installed software. This objective covers the feature set of Ansible version 2.2 or later.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the principles of automated system configuration and software installation
  • Create and maintain inventory files
  • Understand how Ansible interacts with remote systems
  • Manage SSH login credentials for Ansible, including using unprivileged login accounts
  • Create, maintain and run Ansible playbooks, including tasks, handlers, conditionals, loops and registers
  • Set and use variables
  • Maintain secrets using Ansible vaults
  • Write Jinja2 templates, including using common filters, loops and conditionals
  • Understand and use Ansible roles and install Ansible roles from Ansible Galaxy
  • Understand and use important Ansible tasks, including file, copy, template, ini_file, lineinfile, patch, replace, user, group, command, shell, service, systemd, cron, apt, debconf, yum, git, and debug
  • Awareness of dynamic inventory
  • Awareness of Ansibles features for non-Linux systems
  • Awareness of Ansible containers

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ansible.cfg
  • ansible-playbook
  • ansible-vault
  • ansible-galaxy
  • ansible-doc

704.2 Other Configuration Management Tools (weight: 2)

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the main features and principles of important configuration management tools other than Ansible.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic feature and architecture knowledge of Puppet.
  • Basic feature and architecture knowledge of Chef.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Manifest, Class, Recipe, Cookbook
  • puppet
  • chef
  • chef-solo
  • chef-client
  • chef-server-ctl
  • knife

Topic 705: Service Operations

705.1 IT Operations and Monitoring (weight: 4)

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should understand how IT infrastructure is involved in delivering a service. This includes knowledge about the major goals of IT operations, understanding functional and nonfunctional properties of an IT services and ways to monitor and measure them using Prometheus. Furthermore candidates should understand major security risks in IT infrastructure. This objective covers the feature set of Prometheus 1.7 or later.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand goals of IT operations and service provisioning, including nonfunctional properties such as availability, latency, responsiveness
  • Understand and identify metrics and indicators to monitor and measure the technical functionality of a service
  • Understand and identify metrics and indicators to monitor and measure the logical functionality of a service
  • Understand the architecture of Prometheus, including Exporters, Pushgateway, Alertmanager and Grafana
  • Monitor containers and microservices using Prometheus
  • Understand the principles of IT attacks against IT infrastructure
  • Understand the principles of the most important ways to protect IT infrastructure
  • Understand core IT infrastructure components and their the role in deployment

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Prometheus, Node exporter, Pushgateway, Alertmanager, Grafana
  • Service exploits, brute force attacks, and denial of service attacks
  • Security updates, packet filtering and application gateways
  • Virtualization hosts, DNS and load balancers

705.2 Log Management and Analysis (weight: 4)

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should understand the role of log files in operations and troubleshooting. They should be able to set up centralized logging infrastructure based on Logstash to collect and normalize log data. Furthermore, candidates should understand how Elasticsearch and Kibana help to store and access log data.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand how application and system logging works
  • Understand the architecture and functionality of Logstash, including the lifecycle of a log message and Logstash plugins
  • Understand the architecture and functionality of Elasticsearch and Kibana in the context of log data management (Elastic Stack)
  • Configure Logstash to collect, normalize, transform and store log data
  • Configure syslog and Filebeat to send log data to Logstash
  • Configure Logstash to send email alerts
  • Understand application support for log management

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • logstash
  • input, filter, output
  • grok filter
  • Log files, metrics
  • syslog.conf
  • /etc/logstash/logstash.yml
  • /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml
  • Overview
  • Course Outine
  • How to enroll?
 

Linux Professional Institute BSD Specialist

The BSD Specialist certification is part of the Linux Professional Institute Open Technology certification program.

The exam focuses on the practical skills required to work successfully in a FreeBSD, NetBSD or OpenBSD environment and tests the knowledge and skills needed to administer BSD operating systems.

The typical BSD Specialist certification holder is a system administrator of BSD operating systems. The certification holder has an understanding of the architecture of the BSD operating systems. This includes the ability to manage various aspects of a BSD installation, including the management of user accounts and groups, processes, file systems, installed software, and client networking configuration. The candidate is experienced in using standard BSD and Unix tools on the command line.

Current Version: 1.0 (Exam code 702-100)

Objectives: 702-100

Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification.

Requirements: Pass the Linux Professional Institute BSD Specialist exam. The 90-minute exam consists of 60 multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank questions.

Validity Period: 5 years

Cost: Click here for exam pricing in your country.

Languages: English

To receive the BSD Specialist Certification the candidate must:

  • Have a working knowledge of BSD operating systems: FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD 
  • Be able to install, manage, and configure BSD operating system
  • Be able to configure hardware, set kernel parameters, and manage system security 
  • Have basic knowledge in BSD system administration, job scheduling, and system automation
  • Have basic network administration knowledge

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